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Airway management coupled with devices such as masks, oro- or nasopharangeal airway insertion, also damage skin, lips, tongues and mucous membranes. Nutritional status is affected and trauma to nasal passages must be avoided with nasalgastric tubes. Current equipment and retention tapes can cause pain and skin damage.
The network will examine features of EB skin affected by the device and its attachment, the microclimate and the sources of mechanical loading, its positioning. Expertise will be drawn from clothing designs, innovative materials, 3D imaging of skin deformation and body shape and 3D printing, to identify materials, designs and manufacture of affordable device attachment systems.
processing.... Drugs & Diseases > Clinical Procedures Intrauterine Device Insertion Updated: Aug 30, 2021 Author: Sarah Hagood Milton, MD; Chief Editor: Christine Isaacs, MD more... Share Print Feedback Close Facebook Twitter LinkedIn WhatsApp Email webmd.ads2.defineAd(id: 'ads-pos-421-sfp',pos: 421); Sections Intrauterine Device Insertion Sections Intrauterine Device Insertion Overview Periprocedural Care Technique Devices Guidelines Questions & Answers Show All Media Gallery References Overview Overview Background Intrauterine device insertion is an outpatient procedure that should be performed by trained healthcare professionals. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are an effective and increasingly popular form of reversible contraception. [1, 2] The increase in popularity has been attributed to their efficacy, ease of reversibility, and patient satisfaction, with minimal effort required for long-term use. [3, 4] IUDs are equivalent to tubal sterilization at preventing pregnancy; in addition to vasectomy, they are the most cost-effective method of long-term contraception available in the United States. [5, 6] The IUDs currently available in the United States include the copper T380A IUD (Paraguard) and 2 levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems (Mirena and Skyla).
The threads on the handle of the IUD insertion device are then released from the groove in the handle of the insertion device. While pushing the slider toward the insertion tubing, the strings at the base of the IUD handle should be pulled, which will retract the IUD arms into the insertion tubing. See the image below.
The flange on the insertion device is then set at the level to which the uterus sounds. This is accomplished by sliding the flange over the marked increments on the IUD insertion tube, as shown in the image below.
While holding the insertion device steady, the slider is pulled all the way down to release the IUD. The IUD handle and insertion tubing are then gently retracted from the uterus and cervix. The strings will remain in place. See the image below.
Following removal of the insertion device, the IUD strings will be readily visualized in vagina. Using long-handled scissor, the strings are then trimmed so that approximately 3 cm are visible, extending from the external cervical os.  See the image below.
Following removal of insertion device, the IUD strings will be readily visualized in vagina. Using long-handled scissors, the strings are then trimmed so that approximately 3 cm are visible extending, from the external cervical os.  See the image below.
Alternatively, the IUD may be removed from the insertion device, grasped with ring forceps, and placed though the dilated cervix and up to the level of the fundus, taking care to ensure that the horizontal arms of the IUD point toward the cornua. The provider also may place the IUD manually. No significant differences in complications, infection, or expulsion between various modes of insertion have been found. 
Mirena is FDA approved for contraception for 5 years and Skyla for 3 years, after which time the devices should be removed and replaced if continued contraception is desired.  In 2009, Mirena was also approved for treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding in women who have concurrent undesired fertility.
It is approved for contraception for a 10-year interval, after which time it should be removed and a new device inserted.  The exact mechanism of action of the copper T380A IUD is unclear, but suggested theories include inhibition of sperm migration and viability, change in transport speed of the ovum, and damage to the ovum.  The pregnancy rate in the first year of use is 0.6%, which increases to 1.9% at 10 years of use. [5, 2]
Both the copper T380A IUD and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system are approved for prevention of pregnancy in women with undesired fertility. The copper T380A IUD is approved for a 10-year interval for contraception. After 10 years, the device should be removed and a new device inserted if the patient desires to continue with the method.  Reliable data exists validating that the copper T380IUD is effective for use as an emergency contraceptive if placed within 5 days of unprotected intercourse. 
Ankle sprain is the most common recreation injury. These injuries result from excessive inversion of the ankle, where the foot is directed inward beyond than 30. To prevent these injuries, prophylactic devices are commonly worn during recreation. The purpose of this study is to compare the peak inversion angle amongst four different ankle prophylactic devices. Participants had 3D ankle kinematics recorded during sudden inversion with four prophylactic devices (Ankle Roll Guard, External Brace, Taped Ankle, and Control). For the sudden inversion, participants stood on the trap doors of a wooden platform, which could be randomly released to rotate the ankle inward 30. Average peak ankle inversion was calculated from five trials that were recorded with each condition and submitted to statistical analysis. The research is ongoing, but expect all prophylactic devices to reduce peak ankle inversion when compared to control condition. However, we expect no significant difference in the peak inversion between the three prophylactic devices. The prophylactic devices appear to prevent excessive ankle inversion, but further research is needed to determine if they effect physical performance and mobility.
Sollecito TP, Abt E, Lockhart PB, et al. The use of prophylactic antibiotics prior to dental procedures in patients with prosthetic joints. Evidence-based clinical practice guideline for dental practitioners-a report of the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. 2015; 146(1): 11-16.
The Italian Budget Law 2019 (Law no.145/2018), published in the Official Gazette on 31 December 2018, clarifies that the reduced Value Added Tax (VAT) rate of 10% applicable for medicines also applies to medical devices based on substances generally used for therapeutic or prophylactic purposes and medical and veterinary treatments, classifiable in the tariff code 3004.
The tables do not specifically mention medical devices, but rather Tariff codes. Consequently, in order to benefit from the reduced VAT rate, the devices have to be included in one of the categories reported under the appropriate nomenclature code.
The Budget Law for FY 2019 includes an authentic interpretation of point 114 of table A part III of DPR no. 633/1972, clarifying that medical devices used for therapeutic, prophylactic or preventive purposes and medical and veterinary treatments, classifiable in the code 3004 of the attachment 1, of Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2017/1925 of 12 October 2017, amending Annex 1 to Council Regulation(EEC) no. 2658/1987 on the tariff and statistical nomenclature and on the Common Customs Tariff, must be intended as included in point 114 of the table attached to DPR no. 633/1972 and therefore subject to the reduced 10% VAT rate.
In particular, nomenclature code 3004 includes medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses (including those in the form of transdermal administration systems) or in forms or packings for retail sale.
Medical devices not falling under mentioned point 114 could however benefit from the reduced VAT rate provided that they are included in one of the other points of the tables attached to DPR no. 633/1972 such as:
In order to ascertain the correct VAT rate of medical devices, taxpayers can file a request for technical analysis with the Italian Customs Authorities and then a ruling request with the Italian Revenue Agency.
Venous thromboembolism is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. The risk of venousthromboembolism is particularly elevated during the postpartum period and especially after cesareandelivery. There is considerable variation in the approach to prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism inpregnancy, including after cesarean delivery. This Consult discusses the different guidelines on prophylaxisof venous thromboembolism after cesarean delivery and provides recommendations based onthe available evidence. The recommendations by the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine are as follows:(1) we recommend that all women who undergo cesarean delivery receive sequential compressiondevices starting before surgery and that the compression devices be used continuously until the patientis fully ambulatory (GRADE 1C); (2) we suggest that women with a previous personal history of deepvenous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism who undergo cesarean delivery receive both mechanical(starting preoperatively and continuing until ambulatory) and pharmacologic (for 6 weeks postoperatively)prophylaxis (GRADE 2C); (3) we suggest that women with a personal history of an inheritedthrombophilia (high-risk or low-risk) but no previous thrombosis who undergo cesarean delivery receiveboth mechanical (starting preoperatively and continuing until ambulatory) and pharmacologic (for 6weeks postoperatively) prophylaxis (GRADE 2C); (4) we recommend the use of low-molecular-weightheparin as the preferred thromboprophylactic agent in pregnancy and the postpartum period (GRADE1C); (5) when pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is needed in pregnant women with class III obesity, wesuggest the use of intermediate doses of enoxaparin (GRADE 2C); and (6) we recommend that eachinstitution develop a patient safety bundle with an institutional protocol for venous thromboembolismprophylaxis among women who undergo cesarean delivery (Best Practice). 59ce067264