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Medical Robotics Book Pdf

The Encyclopedia of Medical Robotics combines contributions in four distinct areas of Medical robotics, namely: Minimally Invasive Surgical Robotics, Micro and Nano Robotics in Medicine, Image-guided Surgical Procedures and Interventions, and Re

Medical Robotics Book Pdf

Description:Robotics is being introduced to medicine because it allows for unprecedented control and precision of surgical instruments in minimally invasive procedures. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the state-of-art, to present new ideas, original results and practical experiences in this expanding area.

This book provides a thorough background to the emerging field of medical robotics. It covers the mathematics needed to understand the use of robotic devices in medicine, including but not limited to robot kinematics, hand-eye and robot-world calibration, reconstruction, registration, motion planning, motion prediction, motion correlation, motion replication and motion learning. Additionally, basic methods behind state-of-the art robots like the DaVinci system, the CyberKnife, motorized C-arms and operating microscopes as well as stereotactic frames are presented. The book is a text book for undergraduates in computer science and engineering.

The main idea of the book is to motivate the methods in robotics in medical applications rather than industrial applications. The book then follows the standard path for a robotics textbook. It is thus suitable for a first course in robotics for undergraduates. It is the first textbook on medical robotics.

This book highlights electromagnetic actuation (EMA) and sensing systems for a broad range of applications including targeted drug delivery, drug-release-rate control, catheterization, intravitreal needleless injections, wireless magnetic capsule endoscopy, and micromanipulations. It also reviews the state-of-the-art magnetic actuation and sensing technologies with remotely controlled targets used in biomedicine.

Dr Hongliang Ren is currently an assistant professor at the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore, where he leads a research group on Medical Mechatronics. He is an affiliated principal investigator for the Singapore Institute of Neurotechnology (SINAPSE) and Advanced Robotics Center at the National University of Singapore. Dr Ren received his PhD in Electronic Engineering (specialized in Biomedical Engineering) from The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK), Hong Kong SAR in 2008. After graduating, he worked as a research fellow at the Laboratory for Computational Sensing and Robotics (LCSR) and at the Engineering Research Center for Computer-Integrated Surgical Systems and Technology (ERC-CISST), Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Computer Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA, from 2008 to 2010. In 2010, he joined the Pediatric Cardiac Biorobotics Lab, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Children's Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, USA, where he investigated the beating-heart robotic surgery system. Prior to joining NUS, in 2012 he also worked on a collaborative computer integrated surgery project, at the Surgical Innovation Institute of Children's National Medical Center, USA. His main areas of interest include biomedical mechatronics, computer-integrated surgery, and dynamic positioning in medicine. Dr Jinjin Sun received his B.S. degree from Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, China, in 2001, the M.S. degree from Shandong University, China, in 2004, and the PhD degree from Beihang University, China, in 2010. He is currently an associate professor at the School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronic Engineering, Beihang University, China. His research interests include the electromagnetic design of various new types of magnetic bearings, such as active magnetic bearings, passive magnetic bearings, hybrid magnetic bearings; brushless direct current motors (BLDCM) and permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM). He has been a visiting research fellow with the Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS) since 2015, and he focuses on the research concerning novel magnetic actuations using magnetic levitation techniques.

There has been a boost of research activities in robotics using soft materialsin the past ten years. It is expected that the use and control ofsoft materials can help realize robotic systems that are safer, cheaper,and more adaptable than the level that the conventional rigid-materialrobots can achieve. Contrary to a number of existing review and positionpapers on soft-material robotics, which mostly present case studiesand/or discuss trends and challenges, the review focuses on thefundamentals of the research field. First, it gives a definition of softmaterialrobotics and introduces its history, which dates back to thelate 1970s. Second, it provides characterization of soft-materials, actuatorsand sensing elements. Third, it presents two general approaches tomathematical modelling of kinematics of soft-material robots; that is,piecewise constant curvature approximation and variable curvature approach,as well as their related statics and dynamics. Fourth, it summarizescontrol methods that have been used for soft-material robots andother continuum robots in both model-based fashion and model-freefashion. Lastly, applications or potential usage of soft-material robotsare described related to wearable robots, medical robots, grasping andmanipulation.

Teleoperated medical robotic systems allow procedures such as surgeries, treatments, and diagnoses to be conducted across short or long distances while utilizing wired and/or wireless communication networks. This study presents a systematic review of the relevant literature between the years 2004 and 2015, focusing on medical teleoperated robotic systems which have witnessed tremendous growth over the examined period. A thorough insight of telerobotics systems discussing design concepts, enabling technologies (namely robotic manipulation, telecommunications, and vision systems), and potential applications in clinical practice is provided, while existing limitations and future trends are also highlighted. A representative paradigm of the short-distance case is the da Vinci Surgical System which is described in order to highlight relevant issues. The long-distance telerobotics concept is exemplified through a case study on diagnostic ultrasound scanning. Moreover, the present review provides a classification into short- and long-distance telerobotic systems, depending on the distance from which they are operated. Telerobotic systems are further categorized with respect to their application field. For the reviewed systems are also examined their engineering characteristics and the employed robotics technology. The current status of the field, its significance, the potential, as well as the challenges that lie ahead are thoroughly discussed.

Telerobotics is considered to be an integral part of the wider field of telemedicine. The ultimate goal of telemedicine is to provide specialized healthcare services over long distances, effectively eliminating the need of physical presence of both the physician and patient in the same location. The possibility of consultation diagnosis, treatment, and medical intervention from a distance, may greatly impact the quality of life of patients located in isolated areas where access to specialized medical services is limited. Telemedicine can virtually bring specialists to areas where medical facilities and experts are not available. Practically, a specialist can examine or operate on a patient at a different geographic location without either of them having to travel. Costs and inconvenience are avoided while improved access to information becomes possible. Moreover, the physician can provide services while at a more comfortable working environment. This method also eliminates the possibility of transmitting infectious diseases between patients and healthcare professionals. Apart from medically-isolated areas, telemedicine is also expected to play a key role in removing barriers to healthcare provision in developing countries, in areas of natural disasters, and war zones where consistent healthcare is unavailable or there is no time to transport a patient to a hospital.

Communication delays and information loss are inherent to long-distance teleoperation. These may severely impact the stability and performance of the controlled system and they pose challenging problems that attracted the attention of the robotics and controls community. A survey that addresses the subject of bilateral teleoperation focusing on several control theoretic approaches was provided by Hokayem and Spong [21]. It covers various methodologies, including passivity-based control, that were proposed to address the aforementioned challenges. Note that passivity-based control is known for its favorable robustness characteristics. Niemeyer and Slotine [22] applied the wave variable concept, an extension to the theory of passivity, to time-delayed teleoperation assuming an unknown but constant time delay. Recently, a special type of force feedback algorithm called projection-based force reflection was examined and experimentally evaluated for the case of a dual-arm haptic-enabled teleoperator system for minimally-invasive surgical applications with communication delays [23].

Telerobotic systems may involve fixed installations in hospitals, systems installed on mobile platforms (e.g., ambulances, trains, ships, airplanes) as well as fully portable (and even handheld) systems. Systems belonging to the last two categories effectively extent the scope of telerobotics to the wider field of mobile-health (m-health) systems and services [25]. As a result, features such as mobility and transportability become important to many telerobotic systems. These features are determined by factors including the size and the weight of the equipment, the mounting options, the power demands and the telecommunication requirements, as well as the support staff needs.

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